Woodland Watch – Week 19 – 24/07/2013

After a couple of weeks away from walking through the woodland on my own with plenty of opportunity to look at the changing flora, I am amazed to see how everything has changed in such a short space of time.

Only a couple of weeks ago, the meadow approaching the woodland was covered in lush green grasses and bright yellow buttercups. Dry hay meadows such as these are characterized by mixures of grasses such as Cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata), Timothy (Phleum pratense), Common Bent (Agrostis capillaris), Sweet Vernal-grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum) and Crested Dog’s-tail (Cynosurus cristatus). I am certainly no expert on grasses and struggle to identify anything beyond the basic species, however even my untrained eye can clearly see the difference between these diverse hay meadows and monoculture manicured lawns.

Meadow grasses on the approach to the woodland

Meadow grasses on the approach to the woodland

This is a very different picture to just a few weeks ago when the meadow was awash with bright yellow buttercups. One of the main features of meadows is the sheer diversity of plants which they contain. Mixed in among the variety of native grasses are a great many other flowering plants. These include plantains, docks, buttercups, vetches and clovers, dandelions, nettles, selfheal, Lesser knapweed, scabious, thistles, hawkbits, Ox-eye Daisies, Yellow-rattle and on rare occasions, Cowslips.

Within a few months of sprouting, the mature grass plant reproduces sexually. The plant grows a tall stem with an inflorescence at the end, which contains small flowers. Each flower contains a male organ, called the anther and a female organ called the pistil. When the pollen from the anther contacts the pistil, it releases sperms cells that enter the pistil to fertilise the ovules inside. These eventually become seeds. The grass seeds, once mature, will fall to the ground to germinate and continue the grass plant’s life cycle.The grass in the meadow approaching the woodland has moved on from the mature green leafy growth of previous weeks to flowering and reproducing to produce seed to continue their life cycle.

Meadow flora going to flower and seed

Meadow flora going to flower and seed

And its not only the meadow plants thinking about reproduction. As we enter the woodland, the bluebells which we have followed since early spring when their first lush, green, leafy growth now have brittle seed pods full of black seeds.

Bluebell seeds now maturing all over the coppice woodland floor

Bluebell seeds now maturing all over the coppice woodland floor

Bluebell seeds take around 3 years to produce flowers from seed. In 3-4 years time, these tiny seeds will hopefully be contributing to the beautiful spread of bluebells covering the woodland floor.

Our native bluebells are coming under threat from competition and hybridization, habitat loss, unsustainable collection and climate change. The native bluebell’s Spanish relative is more vigourous than our native species and can readily cross-breed with it to create a fertile hybrid Hyacinthoides hispanica x non-scripta. To find out more about the future of and the threats facing our native bluebell, take a look at this link from plantlife:

http://www.plantlife.org.uk/uploads/documents/Blubells-for-Britain-report.pdf

Also moving from its flowering stage to producing seed is the cow parsley which we have looked at several times over previous weeks as it developed. Now, the flower heads are covered in tiny black seeds.

Cow parsley plants going to seed among the nettles on the ditch bank

Cow parsley plants going to seed among the nettles on the ditch bank

Cow Parsley is a biennial plant; it takes two years to flower from seed. It puts on leaves, stems and roots during the first year and then flowers the following summer. Once they have flowered they die. These plants will self seed freely unless you remove the spent flower heads. These seeds should grow into flowering cow parsley plants over the coming 2 years as they drop to the ground once mature and begin their life cycle.

Seeds are not the only way that plants in the woodland are reproducing. If you look at the underside of the fern leaves on the woodland floor, the spores are clear to see easily with the naked eye.

Fern spores

Fern spores

Sporogenesis is not a reproductive method I am familiar with, so next week we’ll have a look at this in more detail.

Until then, enjoy your own walks in the woods. We will see you next week and see whats happening in the woods and what you should be looking out for on your own travels.

From the Treecreeper Arborists Team

http://www.tree-creeper.com

Woodland Watch – Week 9 – 15/05/2013

Welcome to another week in the woods. I’m sure I don’t need to tell anyone that the weather so far this spring is very unpredictable! So far I have been very lucky with my weekly woodland walks and have managed to do all of them in dry weather, but I think that probably has more to do with careful timing than anything else!

The woodland is made up mainly of hazel coppice with a range of standards dotted throughout but mainly around the edges of the woodland area. It was lovely to see the oaks starting to come into leaf. In folklaw the saying goes “If the oak before the ash, then we’ll only have a splash, if the ash before the oak, then we’ll surely have a soak.” This year however, the ash and oak have both held on for a long time before bursting into leaf and when they have they have appeared around the same time. I will leave you to draw your own conclusions as to what this could herald for the coming summer!

Oak standards on the woodland edge

Oak standards on the woodland edge

After a slow start the oak standards around the woodland are now starting to come into leaf. The oak tree has a wide range of qualities suitable for healing purposes. If ground into fine powder, oak bark can be taken like snuff to stop nosebleeds. It can also be sprinkled onto sheets to alleviate the discomfort of bedsores. Young oak leaf-buds were prepared in distilled water and taken inwardly to assuage inflammations and bruised oak leaves are used outwardly, being applied to wounds and hemorrhoids to ease inflammations.

Another plant with a great range of uses including medicinal is the common nettle (Urtica dioica). Seen emerging and starting to take hold in previous weeks, the banks of the stream bordering the woodland are now overrun with thick, impenetrable stinging nettles which are now out-competing most other flora in the area.

Stinging nettles overrunning the borders of the woodland

Stinging nettles overrunning the borders of the woodland

Around the woodland floor, the male ferns which were seen emerging with curled fronds in previous weeks are now fully unfurled and growing quickly.

Young ferns now unfurled and growing rapidly

Young ferns now unfurled and growing rapidly

Among the many weed species taking hold all over the woodland floor are the dandelions. Much less prevalent than in the surrounding open meadows and field, but nonetheless still present.

Young dandelion leaves nestled among the other ground flora

Young dandelion leaves nestled among the other ground flora

The word Dandelion comes from the French name for the plant dents de lion meaning teeth of the lion and refers to the jagged edges of the leaf of the plant. The other French name for this plant is pis-en-lit, in English this means wet the bed. Dandelions deserve this name because their greens, when eaten, remove water from the body. So eating the greens could cause someone to well… you can guess the rest. Not recommend for a bedtime snack.

The Dandelion provides an important food source to bees. The pollen from this plant helps bees out in the spring because it flowers early and the flowers continue through to the fall providing constant food. In fact no less then 93 different kinds of insects use Dandelion pollen as food. The Dandelion seeds are also important food to many small birds.

Join us next week for a wander through the woods with Woodland Watch Week 10