Woodland Watch Week 21 – 7/08/2013

Another week has gone by and we’re getting closer and closer to the end of summer. Keeping everything crossed for a late summer/early autumn heatwave as i’m just not ready for autumn yet!!!

So, what’s been going on in the woods this week? One of the creatures we haven’t touched upon yet is the butterflies, but the meadows around the wood and the wood itself have been swarming with all sorts of butterflies this year. The main reason I’ve not mentioned them is because try as I might to get a photograph of any of them, i’ve not been particularly successful! The iPhone is wonderfully portable and easy to take photos with but it’s not really set up for fleeting glimpses of fluttering butterflies taken from several metres away!

So, this photo was the best I managed to get and i’m sure you’ll agree it’s not a lot of help! It does lend itself to a good game of “spot the butterfly” though!

Butterfly in the meadow approaching the field which I can only describe as "little brown butterfly"!!!

Butterfly in the meadow approaching the field which I can only describe as “little brown butterfly”!!!

According to Butterfly Conservation, “three-quarters of British butterflies are in decline and many moths are also facing an uncertain future.The 56 species in Britain and Ireland are under threat today from unprecedented environmental change”.

It has been lovely to see so many butterflies around this year, but it is still worrying that they are decreasing so rapidly. So why are butterflies important besides the fact that the y look pretty fluttering around during the summer months? The butterfly conservation website has a great section on “Why Butterflies and Moths Matter” and i’ve pasted a short exert below:

Ecosystem value

  • Butterflies and moths are indicators of a healthy environment and healthy ecosystems.
  • They indicate a wide range of other invertebrates, which comprise over two-thirds of all species.
  • Areas rich in butterflies and moths are rich in other invertebrates. These collectively provide a wide range of environmental benefits, including pollination and natural pest control.
  • Moths and butterflies are an important element of the food chain and are prey for birds, bats and other insectivorous animals (for example, in Britain and Ireland, Blue Tits eat an estimated 50 billion moth caterpillars each year).
  • Butterflies and moths support a range of other predators and parasites, many of which are specific to individual species, or groups of species.
  • Butterflies have been widely used by ecologists as model organisms to study the impact of habitat loss and fragmentation, and climate change.

There’s also a great butterfly and moth identification tool on their website

http://butterfly-conservation.org/50/identify-a-butterfly.html

Last week we saw the conkers forming on the horse chestnut trees, this week we’re looking at the hazel for signs of autumn approaching. These hazel nuts are appearing fast on the coppiced hazel throughout the woodland and will ripen over the coming months.

Unripe hazel nuts

Unripe hazel nuts

Once ripe, these hazelnuts will fall out of the husk, which generally happens around 7-8 months after pollination. These nuts still have a way to go yet before they are ready to be harvested, but unfortunately not all species are as patient as we are as we’ll look at next week!

As you’ve probably noticed by now i’m a forager by nature! No walk in the countryside is complete without picking something to eat along the way! So, I couldn’t resist a few hazlenut recipes to get you thinking while the nuts ripen!

How about this amazing looking chocolate and hazelnut cake:

chocolate_and_hazelnut_38207_16x9

check out the recipe at http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/recipes/chocolate_and_hazelnut_38207

Or this gorgeous Italian hazelnut and chocolate torte:

torte

Recipe at http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/recipes/9727/italian-hazelnut-and-chocolate-torte

So, moving back to the woodlands and away from chocolate recipes that are making my tummy rumble! We’ll keep an eye on the hazelnuts over the autumn and watch them as they ripen ready to eat.

This week I had a bit of a closer look around the stems of some of the mature oak trees. Last week we looked at one of the trees with a lot of burrs, this week we’re going to take a look at another growth habit known as epicormic growth.

In many woody species, epicormic buds lie dormant underneath the bark , their growth  suppressed by hormones produced by active shoots higher up the tree. Under certain conditions, these dormant buds are activated resulting in epicormic growth as you can see here on the oak trees around the wood:

Epicormic shoots on the stem of one of the mature oak trees

Epicormic shoots on the stem of one of the mature oak trees

Epicormic shoots are the means by which trees regrow after operations such as pruning, or in the case of some species, pollarding/coppicing. This is why it is possible to cut some species back to just a trunk or even to ground level and the tree will re-shoot and continue to grow healthily. While a lot of species have epicormic buds, many others don’t such as many conifer species. This is why it is possible to pollard a willow and it will re-grow but if you carry out the same operation on a conifer it will not. Only species with strong epicormic growth abilities can be pruned in this way.

Continuing through the wood and out the other side into the neighbouring meadow I couldn’t help but stop for a look around the hedgerow. Native hedgerows are a forager’s heaven, often containing fruits, nuts and edible flowers all within easy reach for picking. Its easy to see why small mammals, birds and insects thrive in the hedgerow habitat and why it is so important that we conserve our native hedgerows.

My mind is already planning ahead to autumn recipes and where better to begin than the blackberry? The flowers of the blackberries came out earlier in the year and now in many places the fruits themselves are starting to form as tight little hard green berries.

Blackberry flowers and the beginnings of fruit production

Blackberry flowers and the beginnings of fruit production

Blackberries are perennial plants (living for more than 2 years) with biennial stems which grow from the perennial root system (taking 2 years to complete their life cycle. In the first year, the new stem grows vigorously to its full length of around 3-6m, generally trailing along thr ground or any other support structure it can find, bearing large palmate leaves.

In its second year, the cane does not grow any longer, but instead produces flowering lateral stems from the main stem which have smaller leaves. Both the stem and lateral shoots are covered in sharp prickles.

Canes can be trained when cultivated, however wild blackberries usually form a tangle of dense arching stems, with the branches rooting from the node tip on many species once they reach the ground. The flowers are produced in late spring and early summer with 5 white or pale pink petals. Drupelets then form around ovules that are fertilised by the male gamete from a pollen grain.

I’m looking forward to returning from my walk with a basket of blackberries in the autumn ready for jam and pudding making!

So, that’s it for another week and another walk in the woods. Apologies for the slight delay in getting these blogs written! Its such a busy time of year for tree surgeons and we’re just battling to keep on top of everything!

We hope you’re enjoying your walks in the woods and seeing everything continue to change as we approach the autumn.

See you next week!

Woodland Watch – Week 13 – 12/06/2013

Welcome to another week and another walk in the woods. I have been amazed watching this woodland week by week, seeing all the changes and this week was just as exciting. So, here we go!

One of the standard trees in this woodland that we haven’t really looked at yet is the oak. There are several oak trees around the site, both young and mature specimens. This year, with the cold start to spring it took the oak trees a while to come into leaf. As you can see now, the oaks are properly in leaf and their vibrant green leaves provide a beautiful upper canopy to a few areas of the wood.

Looking up through the oak canopy

Looking up through the oak canopy

Of all our native trees, the oak is probably one of the most commonly recognised by people. Widespread in fields, hedgerows and woodlands it is arguably one of the classic English trees. There are over 400 species of oak worldwide including trees, shrubs, deciduous and evergreen varieties and they can live up to 700 years old, outliving all other trees in the UK except the yew.

In this woodland we have the native English Oak. Male catkins appear on the tree with the leaves in April and become long, pollen-filled pendulous by May. Then the female catkins open as upright flowers which await the touch of fertilising pollen from the males. They hold the seed vessels which will become acorns, the fruit of the oak tree.

I will look out for these in the coming weeks. For now, here’s another beautiful picture of the leaves of a young oak tree, bright and vibrant with new life.

Bright young oak leaves

Bright young oak leaves

We already noted last week the dramatic change in the colour of the woodland floor. Only a couple of weeks ago it was covered in the vivid blue of the bluebell flowers. Last week we saw the change to green as the flowers disappeared and the leaves started to wilt.

Bluebells reproduce through propagation by seed using sexual reproduction. They are usually pollinated by insects and after fertilisation occurs, the seeds are produced and dispersed. In the woodland, now that the flowers have disappeared you can clearly see all of the seed pods still standing on the upright stalks. Right now the seeds are still green, but they will turn darker as they mature before they are ready to disperse.

Bluebell seed pods

Bluebell seed pods

Going back a few weeks, before the hazel leaves burst into life we looked at the male catkins and female flowers and how the hazel reproduces. Now that this has happenned and the female flowers have been fertilised, the male catkin has fulfilled its purposes and drops off, leaving the female to produce the nuts that we will see in autumn. Walking around the wood, you can see many of the used, male catkins on the woodland floor.

Male catkins drop off once they have fertilised the female flowers, leaving them to develop into nuts ready for autumn.

Male catkins drop off once they have fertilised the female flowers, leaving them to develop into nuts ready for autumn.

And sticking with the theme of reproduction, the hawthorn has also just come into flower. Later than in most years but making a beautiful sight, especially around the boundaries of the wood where this photo was taken.

Hawthorn flowers coming into bloom on the edge of the wood

Hawthorn flowers coming into bloom on the edge of the wood

These blossoms contain both male and female reproductive parts and are fertilised by passing insects. By summer the seeds will grow into small green berries which will turn dark red by autumn to attract birds who will eat the berries and propagate the seeds. We will watch the hawthorns in the woodland as they move through this cycle.

And that’s it for another weekend of woodland watch. Join us next week for another walk in the woods!

In the meantime don’t forget to check out our website http://www.tree-creeper.com and send us any of your own woodland watch pictures from your own walks to office@tree-creeper.com or send them through our facebook page!