Woodland Watch Week 22 – 14/08/2013

This week, we’re focusing on just one of the creatures that have made the woodland their home not just here in the Woodland Watch wood but all over the UK. I have seen many of these little mammals racing about in the coppice canopy and even more evidence of them all around the wood through the last few months. Have you worked out what we’re talking about yet?…Yep, you got it…The grey squirrel!

The Grey Squirrel

The Grey Squirrel

The grey squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is a familiar sight all over Britain, despite being a non-native, and most would argue, an invasive species. Grey squirrels were introduced from North America in 1876 by the Victorians who considered them an exotic species. Since then they have spread throughout most of the UK, almost completely displacing the native red squirrel .

Grey squirrels are not fussy eaters, which to a certain extent explains their displacement of their red counterparts. They are mainly herbivorous, eating predominantly acorns, hazelnuts, berries, fungi, bark, buds and shoots. However, on rare occasions when food is scarce they will also eat insects, smaller rodents, bird eggs and nestlings. Red squirrels have a similar diet, but they are unable to digest seeds with high tannin content, such as acorns, which limits the food sources. They are also able to make much better use of unripe acorns and hazelnuts and this is clearly visible in the woodland.

Unripe hazelnuts broken open by squirrels for food

Unripe hazelnuts broken open by squirrels for food

Although my iPhone camera has let me down again here, you can get the idea! The woodland floor is littered with unripe hazelnut shells which have been split open by squirrels enabling them to get to the nuts for food before other species are able to consume this resource.

The introduced grey squirrel has been so successful in displacing its native cousin partly because it is bigger and stronger, able to find more food and store more fat in its body for winter. This allows it to out-compete the red squirrel, which has lower survival and breeding rates. A second reason is the Parapoxvirus, which causes a fatal infection in red squirrels. Grey squirrels are not affected, but act as carriers, spreading the virus to red squirrels in the vicinity.

As well as the feeding signs around the woodland, there are also a lot of signs of squirrel damage to the trees. Grey squirrels strip bark around stems and branches of trees. Bark stripping damage usually starts at the end of April and continues until the end of July (early September in high-risk years). Grey squirrels do not strip bark at any other time of year. Trees may be stripped anywhere on the main stem and branches, with vigorously growing and dominant trees generally being most affected.

An example of squirrel damage in the wood

An example of squirrel damage in the wood

The Forestry Commission have produced a great publication all about grey squirrel damage in woodlands which can be viewed at:

http://www.forestry.gov.uk/pdf/fcpn004.pdf/$file/fcpn004.pdf

Now, it wouldn’t be one of my blogs if there wasn’t some mention of eating something, so if you’re a vegetarian, you might want to stop reading at this point! Squirrel arguably provides one of the most ethical meats you can eat in the UK. Completely free range, low in fat and as the countryside is overrun with squirrels and population control is often deemed necessary, why not eat them?

There’s a great recipe here for spanish braised squirrel:

http://www.wildmeat.co.uk/orderform.htm?ac=EZKF4-6

Spanish Braised Squirrel

Spanish Braised Squirrel

While the woods have a lot of signs of squirrels, they’re not causing any huge problems here and are likely to be left alone at least for the near future. However, across the wider countryside, there are many areas where squirrels are causing major problems to woodlands and population control is an ongoing options.

As an arboricultural company we see many examples of squirrel damaged trees and I can certainly appreciate the need for population control. However I also hate to see any creature being wasted, so if we’re going to control squirrel populations, why not eat them?

That’s it for this week. Join us next week for another walk in the woods as we’re heading closer and closer to autumn.

Until then, enjoy your own walks in the woods!

Treecreeper Arborists – http://www.tree-creeper.com

Woodland Watch Week 21 – 7/08/2013

Another week has gone by and we’re getting closer and closer to the end of summer. Keeping everything crossed for a late summer/early autumn heatwave as i’m just not ready for autumn yet!!!

So, what’s been going on in the woods this week? One of the creatures we haven’t touched upon yet is the butterflies, but the meadows around the wood and the wood itself have been swarming with all sorts of butterflies this year. The main reason I’ve not mentioned them is because try as I might to get a photograph of any of them, i’ve not been particularly successful! The iPhone is wonderfully portable and easy to take photos with but it’s not really set up for fleeting glimpses of fluttering butterflies taken from several metres away!

So, this photo was the best I managed to get and i’m sure you’ll agree it’s not a lot of help! It does lend itself to a good game of “spot the butterfly” though!

Butterfly in the meadow approaching the field which I can only describe as "little brown butterfly"!!!

Butterfly in the meadow approaching the field which I can only describe as “little brown butterfly”!!!

According to Butterfly Conservation, “three-quarters of British butterflies are in decline and many moths are also facing an uncertain future.The 56 species in Britain and Ireland are under threat today from unprecedented environmental change”.

It has been lovely to see so many butterflies around this year, but it is still worrying that they are decreasing so rapidly. So why are butterflies important besides the fact that the y look pretty fluttering around during the summer months? The butterfly conservation website has a great section on “Why Butterflies and Moths Matter” and i’ve pasted a short exert below:

Ecosystem value

  • Butterflies and moths are indicators of a healthy environment and healthy ecosystems.
  • They indicate a wide range of other invertebrates, which comprise over two-thirds of all species.
  • Areas rich in butterflies and moths are rich in other invertebrates. These collectively provide a wide range of environmental benefits, including pollination and natural pest control.
  • Moths and butterflies are an important element of the food chain and are prey for birds, bats and other insectivorous animals (for example, in Britain and Ireland, Blue Tits eat an estimated 50 billion moth caterpillars each year).
  • Butterflies and moths support a range of other predators and parasites, many of which are specific to individual species, or groups of species.
  • Butterflies have been widely used by ecologists as model organisms to study the impact of habitat loss and fragmentation, and climate change.

There’s also a great butterfly and moth identification tool on their website

http://butterfly-conservation.org/50/identify-a-butterfly.html

Last week we saw the conkers forming on the horse chestnut trees, this week we’re looking at the hazel for signs of autumn approaching. These hazel nuts are appearing fast on the coppiced hazel throughout the woodland and will ripen over the coming months.

Unripe hazel nuts

Unripe hazel nuts

Once ripe, these hazelnuts will fall out of the husk, which generally happens around 7-8 months after pollination. These nuts still have a way to go yet before they are ready to be harvested, but unfortunately not all species are as patient as we are as we’ll look at next week!

As you’ve probably noticed by now i’m a forager by nature! No walk in the countryside is complete without picking something to eat along the way! So, I couldn’t resist a few hazlenut recipes to get you thinking while the nuts ripen!

How about this amazing looking chocolate and hazelnut cake:

chocolate_and_hazelnut_38207_16x9

check out the recipe at http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/recipes/chocolate_and_hazelnut_38207

Or this gorgeous Italian hazelnut and chocolate torte:

torte

Recipe at http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/recipes/9727/italian-hazelnut-and-chocolate-torte

So, moving back to the woodlands and away from chocolate recipes that are making my tummy rumble! We’ll keep an eye on the hazelnuts over the autumn and watch them as they ripen ready to eat.

This week I had a bit of a closer look around the stems of some of the mature oak trees. Last week we looked at one of the trees with a lot of burrs, this week we’re going to take a look at another growth habit known as epicormic growth.

In many woody species, epicormic buds lie dormant underneath the bark , their growth  suppressed by hormones produced by active shoots higher up the tree. Under certain conditions, these dormant buds are activated resulting in epicormic growth as you can see here on the oak trees around the wood:

Epicormic shoots on the stem of one of the mature oak trees

Epicormic shoots on the stem of one of the mature oak trees

Epicormic shoots are the means by which trees regrow after operations such as pruning, or in the case of some species, pollarding/coppicing. This is why it is possible to cut some species back to just a trunk or even to ground level and the tree will re-shoot and continue to grow healthily. While a lot of species have epicormic buds, many others don’t such as many conifer species. This is why it is possible to pollard a willow and it will re-grow but if you carry out the same operation on a conifer it will not. Only species with strong epicormic growth abilities can be pruned in this way.

Continuing through the wood and out the other side into the neighbouring meadow I couldn’t help but stop for a look around the hedgerow. Native hedgerows are a forager’s heaven, often containing fruits, nuts and edible flowers all within easy reach for picking. Its easy to see why small mammals, birds and insects thrive in the hedgerow habitat and why it is so important that we conserve our native hedgerows.

My mind is already planning ahead to autumn recipes and where better to begin than the blackberry? The flowers of the blackberries came out earlier in the year and now in many places the fruits themselves are starting to form as tight little hard green berries.

Blackberry flowers and the beginnings of fruit production

Blackberry flowers and the beginnings of fruit production

Blackberries are perennial plants (living for more than 2 years) with biennial stems which grow from the perennial root system (taking 2 years to complete their life cycle. In the first year, the new stem grows vigorously to its full length of around 3-6m, generally trailing along thr ground or any other support structure it can find, bearing large palmate leaves.

In its second year, the cane does not grow any longer, but instead produces flowering lateral stems from the main stem which have smaller leaves. Both the stem and lateral shoots are covered in sharp prickles.

Canes can be trained when cultivated, however wild blackberries usually form a tangle of dense arching stems, with the branches rooting from the node tip on many species once they reach the ground. The flowers are produced in late spring and early summer with 5 white or pale pink petals. Drupelets then form around ovules that are fertilised by the male gamete from a pollen grain.

I’m looking forward to returning from my walk with a basket of blackberries in the autumn ready for jam and pudding making!

So, that’s it for another week and another walk in the woods. Apologies for the slight delay in getting these blogs written! Its such a busy time of year for tree surgeons and we’re just battling to keep on top of everything!

We hope you’re enjoying your walks in the woods and seeing everything continue to change as we approach the autumn.

See you next week!

Woodland Watch – Week 19 – 24/07/2013

After a couple of weeks away from walking through the woodland on my own with plenty of opportunity to look at the changing flora, I am amazed to see how everything has changed in such a short space of time.

Only a couple of weeks ago, the meadow approaching the woodland was covered in lush green grasses and bright yellow buttercups. Dry hay meadows such as these are characterized by mixures of grasses such as Cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata), Timothy (Phleum pratense), Common Bent (Agrostis capillaris), Sweet Vernal-grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum) and Crested Dog’s-tail (Cynosurus cristatus). I am certainly no expert on grasses and struggle to identify anything beyond the basic species, however even my untrained eye can clearly see the difference between these diverse hay meadows and monoculture manicured lawns.

Meadow grasses on the approach to the woodland

Meadow grasses on the approach to the woodland

This is a very different picture to just a few weeks ago when the meadow was awash with bright yellow buttercups. One of the main features of meadows is the sheer diversity of plants which they contain. Mixed in among the variety of native grasses are a great many other flowering plants. These include plantains, docks, buttercups, vetches and clovers, dandelions, nettles, selfheal, Lesser knapweed, scabious, thistles, hawkbits, Ox-eye Daisies, Yellow-rattle and on rare occasions, Cowslips.

Within a few months of sprouting, the mature grass plant reproduces sexually. The plant grows a tall stem with an inflorescence at the end, which contains small flowers. Each flower contains a male organ, called the anther and a female organ called the pistil. When the pollen from the anther contacts the pistil, it releases sperms cells that enter the pistil to fertilise the ovules inside. These eventually become seeds. The grass seeds, once mature, will fall to the ground to germinate and continue the grass plant’s life cycle.The grass in the meadow approaching the woodland has moved on from the mature green leafy growth of previous weeks to flowering and reproducing to produce seed to continue their life cycle.

Meadow flora going to flower and seed

Meadow flora going to flower and seed

And its not only the meadow plants thinking about reproduction. As we enter the woodland, the bluebells which we have followed since early spring when their first lush, green, leafy growth now have brittle seed pods full of black seeds.

Bluebell seeds now maturing all over the coppice woodland floor

Bluebell seeds now maturing all over the coppice woodland floor

Bluebell seeds take around 3 years to produce flowers from seed. In 3-4 years time, these tiny seeds will hopefully be contributing to the beautiful spread of bluebells covering the woodland floor.

Our native bluebells are coming under threat from competition and hybridization, habitat loss, unsustainable collection and climate change. The native bluebell’s Spanish relative is more vigourous than our native species and can readily cross-breed with it to create a fertile hybrid Hyacinthoides hispanica x non-scripta. To find out more about the future of and the threats facing our native bluebell, take a look at this link from plantlife:

http://www.plantlife.org.uk/uploads/documents/Blubells-for-Britain-report.pdf

Also moving from its flowering stage to producing seed is the cow parsley which we have looked at several times over previous weeks as it developed. Now, the flower heads are covered in tiny black seeds.

Cow parsley plants going to seed among the nettles on the ditch bank

Cow parsley plants going to seed among the nettles on the ditch bank

Cow Parsley is a biennial plant; it takes two years to flower from seed. It puts on leaves, stems and roots during the first year and then flowers the following summer. Once they have flowered they die. These plants will self seed freely unless you remove the spent flower heads. These seeds should grow into flowering cow parsley plants over the coming 2 years as they drop to the ground once mature and begin their life cycle.

Seeds are not the only way that plants in the woodland are reproducing. If you look at the underside of the fern leaves on the woodland floor, the spores are clear to see easily with the naked eye.

Fern spores

Fern spores

Sporogenesis is not a reproductive method I am familiar with, so next week we’ll have a look at this in more detail.

Until then, enjoy your own walks in the woods. We will see you next week and see whats happening in the woods and what you should be looking out for on your own travels.

From the Treecreeper Arborists Team

http://www.tree-creeper.com

Woodland Watch – Week 16 – 03/07/2013

Another week in the sunshine! What a wonderful day for a walk in the woods…So lets see whats changing this week.

Crossing the little wooden bridge into the woodland copse, the ditch along the woodland boundary which was running with deep water over the winter and early spring is now completely dry.

The ditch on the boundary of the woodland copse, completely dried up

The ditch on the boundary of the woodland copse, completely dried up

Along the banks of the ditches, there is an abundance of vegetation which has grown up since the spring. One of the most common plants along the ditch edge is Cow Parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris).

Cow Parsley growing on the banks of the ditch on the woodland boundary

Cow Parsley growing on the banks of the ditch on the woodland boundary

Cow parsley grows in sunny to semi shaded locations, therefore it is well suited to locations such as this on the boundary of the woodland copse. It is sufficiently common and fast growing to be considered a nuisance weed and its ability to grow rapidly through rhizomes and to produce large quantities of seeds which has meant that it can be considered an invasive species. Cow parsley is beneficial for a range of wildlife, including bees as long as it does not take over and become a monoculture. As in most cases, growing as part of a varied ecosystem, cow parsley is a valuable native species.

Sticking with the theme of white summer flowers, we will move on to look at the elder. Earlier on in the year we looked at the Jews Ear fungus growing on some of the elder in the woodland, but now the focus is on the flowers. Like blackberries, Elder is one of the most commonly foraged for wild foods and it is abundant in hedgerows and verges at this time of year.

Elder growing in a light area in the center of the woodland copse

Elder growing in a light area in the center of the woodland copse

Elder is one of those really useful native species which is often undervalued. It provides good foraging for wild game such as deer and is classified as nesting habitat for a range of birds. The flowers provide nectar for pollinating insects and later in the year a wealth of elderberries will provide food for birds and small mammals. It also provides good lower level cover in a woodland habitat.

Aside from its wildlife value, elder has also been used through out history into the present day as a culinary plant, although it is worth noting that all of the green parts of the plant are poisonous, containing cyanogenic glycosides. The berries can be eaten raw when fully ripe, but are mildly poisonous in their unripe state. Elderberries are most commonly used in cooking to make jam, jelly, chutney and used to infuse alcoholic drinks.

The flower heads are commonly used to make elderflower cordial which is diluted with water before drinking. Additionally, the flowers can be used to make alcoholic drinks including elderflower wine and champagne.

One of the nicest culinary uses for elderflower that I have come across was a batterred elderflower fritter served with homemade strawberry ice cream. The flower heads were left attached to the stalk and the whole head was dipped into a batter mixture, then into hot oil to make it crisp. The finished result looks like this:

Elderflower fritter

Elderflower fritter

For the full recipe, go to http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/allotment/2010/jun/16/gardens-food-and-drink

And sticking with the theme of blossoms and berries, the last time we took a look at the hawthorn it was in full blossom. Now only a few weeks later, the blossom has gone, replaced with young haws which will develop over the coming months to a deep red fruit.

Young haws developing in the hedgerow surrounding the woodland

Young haws developing in the hedgerow surrounding the woodland

So, that’s it for this week. Join us next week for another walk in the woods.

http://www.tree-creeper.com

The Treecreeper Arborists Guide to Looking After Your New Tree

Thank you for coming to talk to us at North Nibley Music Festival and here’s your guide to planting your new tree!

Following the expert advice you have been given in selecting your sapling, you should have a suitable species for your chosen site. Remember, trees are like children – you have to nurture them to help them grow up big and healthy.

Ok, you have your little sapling clutched firmly, and you want it to become a successful tree, so after all the work you will put into it over the next few years it will result in a nice patch of shade to relax in.

Relaxing under a tree

Relaxing under a tree

Firstly, make sure that the roots don’t dry out. We have gone to great lengths to ensure there is minimal disruption to the root system, but there is inevitably some damage to the very fine roots which do all the hard work like taking in water and dissolved nutrients in the soil. These are really important, and each time the tree is moved, more damage occurs to these roots.

At this time of year, the trees are using a fair amount of water, with moisture evaporating from the stomatal pores in the leaves which pull water up from the roots via capillary action. This means the water demand is really important. Ideally, trees should be moved over the winter, when the water demand is much lower, and the tree can cope with the shock more easily.

So in order to ensure the roots have their best chance of survival (and therefore the tree), we must give it the optimal growing conditions. This means digging a hole. It doesn’t have to be too big, as a rule of thumb you can work on around about four times the size of the root ball. You won’t have to dig deep either, as burying the roots too deep will kill or severely weaken the tree. Make sure when you settle the tree in the hole that the point where the roots start to spread out from the stem is at ground level.  Your hole should have gently sloping sides, which if your soil is clay based may become glazed by the back of the spade.This creates a barrier to the roots spreading out, so just loosen the soil all around the edge of the planting pit a little with the edge of the spade.

Digging the hole for your tree

Digging the hole for your tree

Put a bit of nice soft soil or compost in the bottom of the hole, enough to raise the tree to the correct height. While you can still see the roots, and want to use a stake (or a cane) now is the time. Push it down, making sure the roots are missed.  Now fill the rest of the hole with your nice soft soil, and give your tree a bit of a jiggle up and down, which will make sure all the little nooks and crannies are filled with soil. Firm the soil lightly as you go, until you reach the correct height. Stand up, admire your work.

Now, you can give your tree in its new home a good watering, until there is a bit of standing water on the surface of the soil. Depending on whether or not you feel like it, put a bit of mulch around the base. This both keeps the weeds down around the tree so it has less competition for nutrients, and also helps to retain moisture in the soil, so when we have our next hosepipe ban (you know, just before the flooding starts) there is a bit less watering to do. For mulch, just about anything will do. A bit of woodchip, grass cuttings, straw, bits of cardboard or even offcuts of carpet.

DSC00575_000

Now you have successfully planted your tree we hope it gives you many years of pleasure.  Remember, the best time to plant a tree is twenty years ago. The second best time is now . . .

For more information on looking after your trees at any stage of life, or if you get stuck planting your new tree, contact the Treecreeper team on 01453 844038 or email us at office@tree-creeper.com.

For more information about Treecreeper Arborists Ltd, head to our website at

http://www.tree-creeper.com

Woodland Watch – Week 15 – 26/06/2013

Summer seems to finally be here and although it is neither as warm or as predictable as we would like, at least it is not as cold as it has been! This week my walk in the woods was overcast, but warm and I hope you will join me to have a look at what is going on this week.

The grass in the meadow approaching the wood is getting taller and taller but closer to ground level you can see lots of little purple clover flowers.

Clover growing in the hay meadow

Clover growing in the hay meadow

This red clover (Trifolium pratense) is a native, herbaceous perennial plant which can grow 20-80cm tall. The genus is so named because of the leaf structure consisting of three leaflets, known as trifoliate leaves. Clover is an interesting plant, widely grown as a fodder crop and highly valued for its nitrogen fixing capabilities which increase soil fertility.

Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen in the atmosphere is converted into ammonia. In the atmosphere nitrogen exists as a diatomic molecule (the atoms go around in pairs, like oxygen). In this inert state it does not easily react with other chemicals to form new compounds. Nitrogen fixing nodules in the clover plant frees up the nitrogen atoms from their chemical diatomic form (N2) to be used in other ways.

Before the establishment of science, when peopled looked to religion and magic for medicinal cures, red clover was already playing a part in people’s lives. To early Christians, it was a sign of the Trinity while during the Middle Ages, it was regarded as a charm against evil. A mutation resulting in the well-known four-leaf clover is considered good luck when found, even to this day.

Heading into the woodland, the first difference that was immediately apparent was how dark the wood was compared to previous weeks. The canopy has now almost completely closed over with a hazel lower canopy and an upper canopy made up of a range of other broad leaf trees including oak and horse chestnut.

The woodland was noticeably darker now the canopy has closed over

The woodland was noticeably darker now the canopy has closed over

One of the lower level tree species that we haven’t yet touched on but which I have noticed on my walks is the holly (Ilex aquifolium). An evergreen shrub which most people can easily recognise it can grow 10-25m tall with sharp spiney leaves which last around 5 years. What many people don’t realise, and to the relief of tree surgeons such as ourselves, is that leaves on the upper branches of mature trees do not have spines as they are well out of the reach of grazing animals and do not require this particular defense mechanism. 

Lower leaves of a mature holly tree

Lower leaves of a mature holly tree

Holly is dioescious which means there are male and female plants, unlike the hazel which we saw developing the male catkins and female flowers on the same trees. The sex of the plants cannot be determined until they begin flowering, usually between 4 and 12 years of age. Between October and November, the flowers on the female plants will grow into red fruit which is eaten by birds and rodents.

Interestingly in the Irish/Gaelic ogham alphabet holly is called Tinne, a word believed to have originally meant ‘fire’. From this was derived the word ‘tinder’, referring to dry, inflammable matter used for kindling fire from a spark. This association between holly and fire has been known since ancient times when charcoal made from holly wood was used by armourers to forge swords and axe heads.

The holly will remain fairly constant through the changing of the seasons, but it is a highly valuable woodland species.

Sticking with the theme of trees, another species to note is the English elm. Once a classic English tree like the English Oak, the elm all but disappeared from our countryside after Dutch Elm Disease reached Britain in 1927.

Now, these small elm saplings around the edge of the wood, although relatively common at this stage of their lives, are unlikely to reach maturity.

English Elm saplings

English Elm saplings

The current DED epidemic is caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi which is dispersed by various elm bark beetles within the Scolytus genus. The fungus blocks water conduction, resulting in wilting and eventual death of the foliage.

The first signs of the disease are often yellowing/browning of foliage tips as the affected branches are gradually starved of water.  When the leaves fall, the remaining twigs often turn down to form ‘shepherds crooks’ which can be valuable for disease detection in winter.

The diagram below shows how the disease progresses.

Dutch Elm Disease

Dutch Elm Disease

Although the English landscape has certainly lost the majority of its mature English elms, the Ulmus procera species has not disappeared completely from the landscape. This is because the elm bark beetles require bark to be of a certain thickness for breeding to be successful.

When an English Elm is killed by the disease, some roots remain alive and new elms regenerate from these. This means that for every mature elm killed by DED, many more are able to replace it. We may not have many large elms, but there are millions of young elms growing all over the English countryside, such as these young saplings in our wood.

That’s it for this week. Join us again next week for another walk in the woods.

http://www.tree-creeper.com

Woodland Watch – Week 14 – 19/06/2013

It seems as fast as I get used to warm spring/summer weather everything turns around and its back to miserable grey again! This week wasn’t great weather for a walk in the woods, but me and the dog made it out anyway and here’s what we saw this week!

Despite the dreary looking sky and cold, blustery wind that felt more like early spring than early summer, the meadow approaching the woodland was still beautiful, covered in buttercups and a wide range of flora.

Stormier skies than in previous weeks as we approached the woodland

Stormier skies than in previous weeks as we approached the woodland

The buttercup family is comprised of about 2,252 species, including wildflowers and ornamentals, such as larkspur, marsh marigold and clematis. It used to be thought that the rich yellow of the buttercup made better butter from cows feeding in buttercup-rich meadows. This is a myth however, as we now know that the stem and leaf are actually toxic, especially to cattle, and the animals avoid eating it.

The meadow is full of a wide variety of flowers, herbs, grasses etc and I am the first to admit that my meadow species identification needs a lot of work, so please feel free to correct any mistakes!!! Species such as the common plantain and clover are widespread among the buttercups.

Ground level vegetation in the meadow approaching the woodland

Ground level vegetation in the meadow approaching the woodland

Inside the wood, the woodland floor has changed again. The green bluebell leaves from previous weeks have turned yellow and collapsed as they come to the end of their life for this year. The stems and seed pods are still upright, bare looking without their foliage.

Bluebell stems left after the leaves have wilted

Bluebell stems left after the leaves have wilted

While these areas of the woodland look bare now that the bluebells have died back, other areas are overrun with weeds. On entering the woodland area there are large patches of young brambles which will continue to dominate the vegetation where they can through the summer months.

Young brambles taking over the area close to the entrance to the woods

Young brambles taking over the area close to the entrance to the woods

Although generally considered a woody week and certainly difficult to eradicate once they become established, brambles are a very useful plant to a wide range of wildlife. Hundreds of creatures use brambles at different times of the year: Insects visit the flowers for pollen and nectar, including bumblebees, honey bees, hoverflies, wasps, butterflies, moths, flies and lacewings.Spiders spin webs to catch the bounty of visiting insects. Moths such as buff arches, peach blossom and fox moths lay their eggs on bramble as it is their larval foodplant. Blackbirds, thrushes, chaffinches, starlings, robins, pheasants, foxes, mice and other small mammals eat the fruits. Robins, wrens, thrushes, blackbirds, warblers and finches will nest in bramble and small mammals use it for protection from predators.

A weed the bramble may be, but it is certainly a very valuable woodland plant as long as it is not allowed to out compete other valuable vegetation. The key to any habitat is variety.

That’s it for this week. Join us again next week for another walk in the woods.

http://www.tree-creeper.com