Woodland Watch Week 21 – 7/08/2013

Another week has gone by and we’re getting closer and closer to the end of summer. Keeping everything crossed for a late summer/early autumn heatwave as i’m just not ready for autumn yet!!!

So, what’s been going on in the woods this week? One of the creatures we haven’t touched upon yet is the butterflies, but the meadows around the wood and the wood itself have been swarming with all sorts of butterflies this year. The main reason I’ve not mentioned them is because try as I might to get a photograph of any of them, i’ve not been particularly successful! The iPhone is wonderfully portable and easy to take photos with but it’s not really set up for fleeting glimpses of fluttering butterflies taken from several metres away!

So, this photo was the best I managed to get and i’m sure you’ll agree it’s not a lot of help! It does lend itself to a good game of “spot the butterfly” though!

Butterfly in the meadow approaching the field which I can only describe as "little brown butterfly"!!!

Butterfly in the meadow approaching the field which I can only describe as “little brown butterfly”!!!

According to Butterfly Conservation, “three-quarters of British butterflies are in decline and many moths are also facing an uncertain future.The 56 species in Britain and Ireland are under threat today from unprecedented environmental change”.

It has been lovely to see so many butterflies around this year, but it is still worrying that they are decreasing so rapidly. So why are butterflies important besides the fact that the y look pretty fluttering around during the summer months? The butterfly conservation website has a great section on “Why Butterflies and Moths Matter” and i’ve pasted a short exert below:

Ecosystem value

  • Butterflies and moths are indicators of a healthy environment and healthy ecosystems.
  • They indicate a wide range of other invertebrates, which comprise over two-thirds of all species.
  • Areas rich in butterflies and moths are rich in other invertebrates. These collectively provide a wide range of environmental benefits, including pollination and natural pest control.
  • Moths and butterflies are an important element of the food chain and are prey for birds, bats and other insectivorous animals (for example, in Britain and Ireland, Blue Tits eat an estimated 50 billion moth caterpillars each year).
  • Butterflies and moths support a range of other predators and parasites, many of which are specific to individual species, or groups of species.
  • Butterflies have been widely used by ecologists as model organisms to study the impact of habitat loss and fragmentation, and climate change.

There’s also a great butterfly and moth identification tool on their website

http://butterfly-conservation.org/50/identify-a-butterfly.html

Last week we saw the conkers forming on the horse chestnut trees, this week we’re looking at the hazel for signs of autumn approaching. These hazel nuts are appearing fast on the coppiced hazel throughout the woodland and will ripen over the coming months.

Unripe hazel nuts

Unripe hazel nuts

Once ripe, these hazelnuts will fall out of the husk, which generally happens around 7-8 months after pollination. These nuts still have a way to go yet before they are ready to be harvested, but unfortunately not all species are as patient as we are as we’ll look at next week!

As you’ve probably noticed by now i’m a forager by nature! No walk in the countryside is complete without picking something to eat along the way! So, I couldn’t resist a few hazlenut recipes to get you thinking while the nuts ripen!

How about this amazing looking chocolate and hazelnut cake:

chocolate_and_hazelnut_38207_16x9

check out the recipe at http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/recipes/chocolate_and_hazelnut_38207

Or this gorgeous Italian hazelnut and chocolate torte:

torte

Recipe at http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/recipes/9727/italian-hazelnut-and-chocolate-torte

So, moving back to the woodlands and away from chocolate recipes that are making my tummy rumble! We’ll keep an eye on the hazelnuts over the autumn and watch them as they ripen ready to eat.

This week I had a bit of a closer look around the stems of some of the mature oak trees. Last week we looked at one of the trees with a lot of burrs, this week we’re going to take a look at another growth habit known as epicormic growth.

In many woody species, epicormic buds lie dormant underneath the bark , their growth  suppressed by hormones produced by active shoots higher up the tree. Under certain conditions, these dormant buds are activated resulting in epicormic growth as you can see here on the oak trees around the wood:

Epicormic shoots on the stem of one of the mature oak trees

Epicormic shoots on the stem of one of the mature oak trees

Epicormic shoots are the means by which trees regrow after operations such as pruning, or in the case of some species, pollarding/coppicing. This is why it is possible to cut some species back to just a trunk or even to ground level and the tree will re-shoot and continue to grow healthily. While a lot of species have epicormic buds, many others don’t such as many conifer species. This is why it is possible to pollard a willow and it will re-grow but if you carry out the same operation on a conifer it will not. Only species with strong epicormic growth abilities can be pruned in this way.

Continuing through the wood and out the other side into the neighbouring meadow I couldn’t help but stop for a look around the hedgerow. Native hedgerows are a forager’s heaven, often containing fruits, nuts and edible flowers all within easy reach for picking. Its easy to see why small mammals, birds and insects thrive in the hedgerow habitat and why it is so important that we conserve our native hedgerows.

My mind is already planning ahead to autumn recipes and where better to begin than the blackberry? The flowers of the blackberries came out earlier in the year and now in many places the fruits themselves are starting to form as tight little hard green berries.

Blackberry flowers and the beginnings of fruit production

Blackberry flowers and the beginnings of fruit production

Blackberries are perennial plants (living for more than 2 years) with biennial stems which grow from the perennial root system (taking 2 years to complete their life cycle. In the first year, the new stem grows vigorously to its full length of around 3-6m, generally trailing along thr ground or any other support structure it can find, bearing large palmate leaves.

In its second year, the cane does not grow any longer, but instead produces flowering lateral stems from the main stem which have smaller leaves. Both the stem and lateral shoots are covered in sharp prickles.

Canes can be trained when cultivated, however wild blackberries usually form a tangle of dense arching stems, with the branches rooting from the node tip on many species once they reach the ground. The flowers are produced in late spring and early summer with 5 white or pale pink petals. Drupelets then form around ovules that are fertilised by the male gamete from a pollen grain.

I’m looking forward to returning from my walk with a basket of blackberries in the autumn ready for jam and pudding making!

So, that’s it for another week and another walk in the woods. Apologies for the slight delay in getting these blogs written! Its such a busy time of year for tree surgeons and we’re just battling to keep on top of everything!

We hope you’re enjoying your walks in the woods and seeing everything continue to change as we approach the autumn.

See you next week!

Woodland Watch – Week 20 – 31/07/2013

Well, another week, another walk in the woods and I can’t believe that we’re seeing signs of autumn emerging already. It seems like only yesterday I was walking through the woods with thick frost underfoot and no signs of growth, then we came through the spring and everything slowly started to emerge and grow, heading into a massive growth spurt in late spring and early summer. Where does the time go?!

So, the first sign of autumn approaching emerged before I even entered the woodland. On my way to the wood I passed a young horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum). The horse chestnut is a broadleaf, deciduous tree, commonly found in the British landscape but actually non-native to the British Isles. The familiar Aesculus hippocastanum is a native of the Balkans, and believed to have been introduced to Britain in the 1500s.

The species doesn’t make up a significant component of British woodlands except in a select few cases in Britain. Mainly found along strees and in parks and gardens, there are horse chestnuts to be found dotted as individual trees, either planted or self seeded, in many woodland areas. In this wood, there are several large, mature horse chestnut trees growing towards the south of the site.

Undoubtedly the most exciting thing about the horse chestnut, especially for children is its seed, known more commonly as conkers and you can start to see the developing conkers inside their green spiny shells on the trees right now.

Developing conkers

Developing conkers

The horse chestnut has become naturalised in the UK and many people would think of it as a native British tree. The wood tends to be rather weak, so has never been widely used for timber or wood products, although its absorbent properties do make it ideal for fruit racks and storage trays as it keeps the fruit dry, preventing rotting. Extracts from the leaves including aescin or aesculin are marketed as herbal remedies because of their anti-inflammatory properties and the trees also have wildlife value with the nuts providing food for deer and other mammals and the flowers providing pollen for insects.

From personal experience I can also recommend using the leaves if you’re caught camping or wild cooking without washing up facilities. The leaves provide a useful lather for scrubbing dirty plates which has helped me on many occasions after a wild cooked meal!

Unfortunately, more recently, horse chestnuts have been a cause for concern as people have watched the leaves turn brown long before autumn. As tree surgeons we have lost count of the number of conversations we have had with people asking what they can do about their “declining” horse chestnut trees.

Rather than re-inventing the wheel here, i’ll point you to a very good Forest Research article about the leaf miner which is affecting horse chestnut trees:

http://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/infd-68jjrc

The trees in the woodland have not escaped this pest and are showing clear signs of infestation with the leaves starting to turn brown. Larvae of C. ohridella mine within the leaves of horse chestnut, and the damage caused by large numbers of larvae can be striking. Up to 700 leaf mines have been recorded on a single leaf under favourable conditions. Severely damaged leaves shrivel and turn brown by late summer and fall early, well before normal leaf fall in the autumn.

Signs of leaf miner infestation on horse chestnut leaves

Signs of leaf miner infestation on horse chestnut leaves

Now, on to a happier note and from childhood games we move on to hedgerow fruits! Autumn is a wonderful time of year for foraging in the woodlands and I can remember many happy childhood days collecting blackberries and sloes with my family and friends. Although we’re not into autumn yet and I certainly wouldn’t want to wish the remaining summer days away, the hedgerows are starting to burst with early signs of food production.

A common hedgerow tree which we have looked at earlier in the season is the elder. The flowers have now gone and turned to young berries, clearly visible in the hedgerows, still green and yet to ripen but promising a good crop in the autumn.

Elderberries starting to develop ready for autumn

Elderberries starting to develop ready for autumn

From elderberry liqueur to elderberry jelly, there are a great variety of things to do with this wonderful fruit. Mixing it with sweeter fruits like blackberries and making into autumn pies and crumbles brings back wonderful childhood memories! I’ll keep you posted on recipes over the autumn!

Now then, on to something a bit more scientific…Although there’s a lot of science in making elderberry liqueur! Last week we looked at the spores developing on the ferns around the woodland and I said I would look into sporogenesis! My understanding is still pretty limited, but we’ll take a brief look!

Sporogenesis is basically a long word which means “the production of spores”, although the terms is also used to refer to the process of reproduction via spores. Reproductive spores are formed in many eukaryotic organisms such as plants, algae and fungi. If you’ve ever brought home a piece of King Alfred’s Cake fungus and left it on top of the stereo (as I once did) you’ll know the mess the spores make as they spread all over the surface!

Fern spores

Fern spores

Spores are distributed in many ways including by wind and by water. Organisms such as the puffball fungi dramatically expel their spores into the surrounding environment in order to reproduce. In ferns, the spores are expelled at a microscopic level and can be viewed in this video:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-xF83pHEx6Q

For those of you interested in some more of the science behind sporogenesis I came across this video which explained it to me! Although not exactly a cinematic masterpiece, it will give you the basics!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c6JNu0Vra-4

Lastly for this week, I wanted to look at a tree which has captured my attention many times walking through the woods. Take a look at this mature oak:

Oak tree with burrs up the main stem

Oak tree with burrs up the main stem

Burrs are commonly found on trees as a rounded outgrowth on a trunk or branch that has filled with small knots from dormant buds. These growths result from the tree undergoing some form of stress, which could be an injury, virus or fungus, among other causes.

The largest burrs have been recorded at 26 feet, occurring in coast redwoods in the US and can encircle the whole trunk where moisture is present.

They yield a very peculiar and highly sought after wood used by furniture makers, artists and sculptors. Every time I walk past this tree I would love to know what is going on under the bark and imagine the beautiful things you could make with the wood.

Well, that’s it for this week’s walk in the woods. I’m sorry it has taken a while to get to you, but the Treecreeper team have been so busy this summer! Join us soon for another walk in the woods!

Until then, enjoy your own walks and let us know how you’re getting on!

Woodland Watch – Week 16 – 03/07/2013

Another week in the sunshine! What a wonderful day for a walk in the woods…So lets see whats changing this week.

Crossing the little wooden bridge into the woodland copse, the ditch along the woodland boundary which was running with deep water over the winter and early spring is now completely dry.

The ditch on the boundary of the woodland copse, completely dried up

The ditch on the boundary of the woodland copse, completely dried up

Along the banks of the ditches, there is an abundance of vegetation which has grown up since the spring. One of the most common plants along the ditch edge is Cow Parsley (Anthriscus sylvestris).

Cow Parsley growing on the banks of the ditch on the woodland boundary

Cow Parsley growing on the banks of the ditch on the woodland boundary

Cow parsley grows in sunny to semi shaded locations, therefore it is well suited to locations such as this on the boundary of the woodland copse. It is sufficiently common and fast growing to be considered a nuisance weed and its ability to grow rapidly through rhizomes and to produce large quantities of seeds which has meant that it can be considered an invasive species. Cow parsley is beneficial for a range of wildlife, including bees as long as it does not take over and become a monoculture. As in most cases, growing as part of a varied ecosystem, cow parsley is a valuable native species.

Sticking with the theme of white summer flowers, we will move on to look at the elder. Earlier on in the year we looked at the Jews Ear fungus growing on some of the elder in the woodland, but now the focus is on the flowers. Like blackberries, Elder is one of the most commonly foraged for wild foods and it is abundant in hedgerows and verges at this time of year.

Elder growing in a light area in the center of the woodland copse

Elder growing in a light area in the center of the woodland copse

Elder is one of those really useful native species which is often undervalued. It provides good foraging for wild game such as deer and is classified as nesting habitat for a range of birds. The flowers provide nectar for pollinating insects and later in the year a wealth of elderberries will provide food for birds and small mammals. It also provides good lower level cover in a woodland habitat.

Aside from its wildlife value, elder has also been used through out history into the present day as a culinary plant, although it is worth noting that all of the green parts of the plant are poisonous, containing cyanogenic glycosides. The berries can be eaten raw when fully ripe, but are mildly poisonous in their unripe state. Elderberries are most commonly used in cooking to make jam, jelly, chutney and used to infuse alcoholic drinks.

The flower heads are commonly used to make elderflower cordial which is diluted with water before drinking. Additionally, the flowers can be used to make alcoholic drinks including elderflower wine and champagne.

One of the nicest culinary uses for elderflower that I have come across was a batterred elderflower fritter served with homemade strawberry ice cream. The flower heads were left attached to the stalk and the whole head was dipped into a batter mixture, then into hot oil to make it crisp. The finished result looks like this:

Elderflower fritter

Elderflower fritter

For the full recipe, go to http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/allotment/2010/jun/16/gardens-food-and-drink

And sticking with the theme of blossoms and berries, the last time we took a look at the hawthorn it was in full blossom. Now only a few weeks later, the blossom has gone, replaced with young haws which will develop over the coming months to a deep red fruit.

Young haws developing in the hedgerow surrounding the woodland

Young haws developing in the hedgerow surrounding the woodland

So, that’s it for this week. Join us next week for another walk in the woods.

http://www.tree-creeper.com

The Treecreeper Arborists Guide to Looking After Your New Tree

Thank you for coming to talk to us at North Nibley Music Festival and here’s your guide to planting your new tree!

Following the expert advice you have been given in selecting your sapling, you should have a suitable species for your chosen site. Remember, trees are like children – you have to nurture them to help them grow up big and healthy.

Ok, you have your little sapling clutched firmly, and you want it to become a successful tree, so after all the work you will put into it over the next few years it will result in a nice patch of shade to relax in.

Relaxing under a tree

Relaxing under a tree

Firstly, make sure that the roots don’t dry out. We have gone to great lengths to ensure there is minimal disruption to the root system, but there is inevitably some damage to the very fine roots which do all the hard work like taking in water and dissolved nutrients in the soil. These are really important, and each time the tree is moved, more damage occurs to these roots.

At this time of year, the trees are using a fair amount of water, with moisture evaporating from the stomatal pores in the leaves which pull water up from the roots via capillary action. This means the water demand is really important. Ideally, trees should be moved over the winter, when the water demand is much lower, and the tree can cope with the shock more easily.

So in order to ensure the roots have their best chance of survival (and therefore the tree), we must give it the optimal growing conditions. This means digging a hole. It doesn’t have to be too big, as a rule of thumb you can work on around about four times the size of the root ball. You won’t have to dig deep either, as burying the roots too deep will kill or severely weaken the tree. Make sure when you settle the tree in the hole that the point where the roots start to spread out from the stem is at ground level.  Your hole should have gently sloping sides, which if your soil is clay based may become glazed by the back of the spade.This creates a barrier to the roots spreading out, so just loosen the soil all around the edge of the planting pit a little with the edge of the spade.

Digging the hole for your tree

Digging the hole for your tree

Put a bit of nice soft soil or compost in the bottom of the hole, enough to raise the tree to the correct height. While you can still see the roots, and want to use a stake (or a cane) now is the time. Push it down, making sure the roots are missed.  Now fill the rest of the hole with your nice soft soil, and give your tree a bit of a jiggle up and down, which will make sure all the little nooks and crannies are filled with soil. Firm the soil lightly as you go, until you reach the correct height. Stand up, admire your work.

Now, you can give your tree in its new home a good watering, until there is a bit of standing water on the surface of the soil. Depending on whether or not you feel like it, put a bit of mulch around the base. This both keeps the weeds down around the tree so it has less competition for nutrients, and also helps to retain moisture in the soil, so when we have our next hosepipe ban (you know, just before the flooding starts) there is a bit less watering to do. For mulch, just about anything will do. A bit of woodchip, grass cuttings, straw, bits of cardboard or even offcuts of carpet.

DSC00575_000

Now you have successfully planted your tree we hope it gives you many years of pleasure.  Remember, the best time to plant a tree is twenty years ago. The second best time is now . . .

For more information on looking after your trees at any stage of life, or if you get stuck planting your new tree, contact the Treecreeper team on 01453 844038 or email us at office@tree-creeper.com.

For more information about Treecreeper Arborists Ltd, head to our website at

http://www.tree-creeper.com

Woodland Watch – Week 15 – 26/06/2013

Summer seems to finally be here and although it is neither as warm or as predictable as we would like, at least it is not as cold as it has been! This week my walk in the woods was overcast, but warm and I hope you will join me to have a look at what is going on this week.

The grass in the meadow approaching the wood is getting taller and taller but closer to ground level you can see lots of little purple clover flowers.

Clover growing in the hay meadow

Clover growing in the hay meadow

This red clover (Trifolium pratense) is a native, herbaceous perennial plant which can grow 20-80cm tall. The genus is so named because of the leaf structure consisting of three leaflets, known as trifoliate leaves. Clover is an interesting plant, widely grown as a fodder crop and highly valued for its nitrogen fixing capabilities which increase soil fertility.

Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen in the atmosphere is converted into ammonia. In the atmosphere nitrogen exists as a diatomic molecule (the atoms go around in pairs, like oxygen). In this inert state it does not easily react with other chemicals to form new compounds. Nitrogen fixing nodules in the clover plant frees up the nitrogen atoms from their chemical diatomic form (N2) to be used in other ways.

Before the establishment of science, when peopled looked to religion and magic for medicinal cures, red clover was already playing a part in people’s lives. To early Christians, it was a sign of the Trinity while during the Middle Ages, it was regarded as a charm against evil. A mutation resulting in the well-known four-leaf clover is considered good luck when found, even to this day.

Heading into the woodland, the first difference that was immediately apparent was how dark the wood was compared to previous weeks. The canopy has now almost completely closed over with a hazel lower canopy and an upper canopy made up of a range of other broad leaf trees including oak and horse chestnut.

The woodland was noticeably darker now the canopy has closed over

The woodland was noticeably darker now the canopy has closed over

One of the lower level tree species that we haven’t yet touched on but which I have noticed on my walks is the holly (Ilex aquifolium). An evergreen shrub which most people can easily recognise it can grow 10-25m tall with sharp spiney leaves which last around 5 years. What many people don’t realise, and to the relief of tree surgeons such as ourselves, is that leaves on the upper branches of mature trees do not have spines as they are well out of the reach of grazing animals and do not require this particular defense mechanism. 

Lower leaves of a mature holly tree

Lower leaves of a mature holly tree

Holly is dioescious which means there are male and female plants, unlike the hazel which we saw developing the male catkins and female flowers on the same trees. The sex of the plants cannot be determined until they begin flowering, usually between 4 and 12 years of age. Between October and November, the flowers on the female plants will grow into red fruit which is eaten by birds and rodents.

Interestingly in the Irish/Gaelic ogham alphabet holly is called Tinne, a word believed to have originally meant ‘fire’. From this was derived the word ‘tinder’, referring to dry, inflammable matter used for kindling fire from a spark. This association between holly and fire has been known since ancient times when charcoal made from holly wood was used by armourers to forge swords and axe heads.

The holly will remain fairly constant through the changing of the seasons, but it is a highly valuable woodland species.

Sticking with the theme of trees, another species to note is the English elm. Once a classic English tree like the English Oak, the elm all but disappeared from our countryside after Dutch Elm Disease reached Britain in 1927.

Now, these small elm saplings around the edge of the wood, although relatively common at this stage of their lives, are unlikely to reach maturity.

English Elm saplings

English Elm saplings

The current DED epidemic is caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi which is dispersed by various elm bark beetles within the Scolytus genus. The fungus blocks water conduction, resulting in wilting and eventual death of the foliage.

The first signs of the disease are often yellowing/browning of foliage tips as the affected branches are gradually starved of water.  When the leaves fall, the remaining twigs often turn down to form ‘shepherds crooks’ which can be valuable for disease detection in winter.

The diagram below shows how the disease progresses.

Dutch Elm Disease

Dutch Elm Disease

Although the English landscape has certainly lost the majority of its mature English elms, the Ulmus procera species has not disappeared completely from the landscape. This is because the elm bark beetles require bark to be of a certain thickness for breeding to be successful.

When an English Elm is killed by the disease, some roots remain alive and new elms regenerate from these. This means that for every mature elm killed by DED, many more are able to replace it. We may not have many large elms, but there are millions of young elms growing all over the English countryside, such as these young saplings in our wood.

That’s it for this week. Join us again next week for another walk in the woods.

http://www.tree-creeper.com

Woodland Watch – Week 14 – 19/06/2013

It seems as fast as I get used to warm spring/summer weather everything turns around and its back to miserable grey again! This week wasn’t great weather for a walk in the woods, but me and the dog made it out anyway and here’s what we saw this week!

Despite the dreary looking sky and cold, blustery wind that felt more like early spring than early summer, the meadow approaching the woodland was still beautiful, covered in buttercups and a wide range of flora.

Stormier skies than in previous weeks as we approached the woodland

Stormier skies than in previous weeks as we approached the woodland

The buttercup family is comprised of about 2,252 species, including wildflowers and ornamentals, such as larkspur, marsh marigold and clematis. It used to be thought that the rich yellow of the buttercup made better butter from cows feeding in buttercup-rich meadows. This is a myth however, as we now know that the stem and leaf are actually toxic, especially to cattle, and the animals avoid eating it.

The meadow is full of a wide variety of flowers, herbs, grasses etc and I am the first to admit that my meadow species identification needs a lot of work, so please feel free to correct any mistakes!!! Species such as the common plantain and clover are widespread among the buttercups.

Ground level vegetation in the meadow approaching the woodland

Ground level vegetation in the meadow approaching the woodland

Inside the wood, the woodland floor has changed again. The green bluebell leaves from previous weeks have turned yellow and collapsed as they come to the end of their life for this year. The stems and seed pods are still upright, bare looking without their foliage.

Bluebell stems left after the leaves have wilted

Bluebell stems left after the leaves have wilted

While these areas of the woodland look bare now that the bluebells have died back, other areas are overrun with weeds. On entering the woodland area there are large patches of young brambles which will continue to dominate the vegetation where they can through the summer months.

Young brambles taking over the area close to the entrance to the woods

Young brambles taking over the area close to the entrance to the woods

Although generally considered a woody week and certainly difficult to eradicate once they become established, brambles are a very useful plant to a wide range of wildlife. Hundreds of creatures use brambles at different times of the year: Insects visit the flowers for pollen and nectar, including bumblebees, honey bees, hoverflies, wasps, butterflies, moths, flies and lacewings.Spiders spin webs to catch the bounty of visiting insects. Moths such as buff arches, peach blossom and fox moths lay their eggs on bramble as it is their larval foodplant. Blackbirds, thrushes, chaffinches, starlings, robins, pheasants, foxes, mice and other small mammals eat the fruits. Robins, wrens, thrushes, blackbirds, warblers and finches will nest in bramble and small mammals use it for protection from predators.

A weed the bramble may be, but it is certainly a very valuable woodland plant as long as it is not allowed to out compete other valuable vegetation. The key to any habitat is variety.

That’s it for this week. Join us again next week for another walk in the woods.

http://www.tree-creeper.com

Woodland Watch – Week 13 – 12/06/2013

Welcome to another week and another walk in the woods. I have been amazed watching this woodland week by week, seeing all the changes and this week was just as exciting. So, here we go!

One of the standard trees in this woodland that we haven’t really looked at yet is the oak. There are several oak trees around the site, both young and mature specimens. This year, with the cold start to spring it took the oak trees a while to come into leaf. As you can see now, the oaks are properly in leaf and their vibrant green leaves provide a beautiful upper canopy to a few areas of the wood.

Looking up through the oak canopy

Looking up through the oak canopy

Of all our native trees, the oak is probably one of the most commonly recognised by people. Widespread in fields, hedgerows and woodlands it is arguably one of the classic English trees. There are over 400 species of oak worldwide including trees, shrubs, deciduous and evergreen varieties and they can live up to 700 years old, outliving all other trees in the UK except the yew.

In this woodland we have the native English Oak. Male catkins appear on the tree with the leaves in April and become long, pollen-filled pendulous by May. Then the female catkins open as upright flowers which await the touch of fertilising pollen from the males. They hold the seed vessels which will become acorns, the fruit of the oak tree.

I will look out for these in the coming weeks. For now, here’s another beautiful picture of the leaves of a young oak tree, bright and vibrant with new life.

Bright young oak leaves

Bright young oak leaves

We already noted last week the dramatic change in the colour of the woodland floor. Only a couple of weeks ago it was covered in the vivid blue of the bluebell flowers. Last week we saw the change to green as the flowers disappeared and the leaves started to wilt.

Bluebells reproduce through propagation by seed using sexual reproduction. They are usually pollinated by insects and after fertilisation occurs, the seeds are produced and dispersed. In the woodland, now that the flowers have disappeared you can clearly see all of the seed pods still standing on the upright stalks. Right now the seeds are still green, but they will turn darker as they mature before they are ready to disperse.

Bluebell seed pods

Bluebell seed pods

Going back a few weeks, before the hazel leaves burst into life we looked at the male catkins and female flowers and how the hazel reproduces. Now that this has happenned and the female flowers have been fertilised, the male catkin has fulfilled its purposes and drops off, leaving the female to produce the nuts that we will see in autumn. Walking around the wood, you can see many of the used, male catkins on the woodland floor.

Male catkins drop off once they have fertilised the female flowers, leaving them to develop into nuts ready for autumn.

Male catkins drop off once they have fertilised the female flowers, leaving them to develop into nuts ready for autumn.

And sticking with the theme of reproduction, the hawthorn has also just come into flower. Later than in most years but making a beautiful sight, especially around the boundaries of the wood where this photo was taken.

Hawthorn flowers coming into bloom on the edge of the wood

Hawthorn flowers coming into bloom on the edge of the wood

These blossoms contain both male and female reproductive parts and are fertilised by passing insects. By summer the seeds will grow into small green berries which will turn dark red by autumn to attract birds who will eat the berries and propagate the seeds. We will watch the hawthorns in the woodland as they move through this cycle.

And that’s it for another weekend of woodland watch. Join us next week for another walk in the woods!

In the meantime don’t forget to check out our website http://www.tree-creeper.com and send us any of your own woodland watch pictures from your own walks to office@tree-creeper.com or send them through our facebook page!