Woodland Watch – Week 12 – 05/06/2013

This week, I decided to focus on the coppice. There’s such a lot going on in the woodland at the moment now that the weather has finally warmed up, but over the last 11 weeks we have takes a lot about the “coppice woodland” and never really elaborated on what this means.

So, here we go. Lets go for a walk in the woods and take a look at one of the earliest forms of woodland management.

Coppicing is a traditional method of woodland management which takes advantage of the fact that many trees produce new growth from the stump or roots if they are cut down. Coppice stools have multiple stems growing out of previously cut stools which arise from dormant buds on the stool. The resulting structure looks like this.

Regrowth from a coppice stool

Regrowth from a coppice stool

Most frequently coppiced species are oak, hazel, ash, willow, field maple and sweet chestnut. In this woodland, most of the coppice is hazel but management has lapsed and many of the stools are in need of management to bring them back into the coppice cycle.

Stools such as this one have been allowed to regrow for too long.

Old coppice stool in need of recoppicing

Old coppice stool in need of recoppicing

Coppicing allows for the production of a large quantity of fast growing, sustainable timber products without the need for replanting. Although trees can be grown from seed, coppicing allows the tree to regrow from a fully established root system.

Different species respond differently to coppicing. Some species such as alder and beech coppice poorly, while species such as hazel and willow respond very well, quickly sending up vigorous, straight growth which can be utilised in a range of ways.

Most notable in this woodland is the way that the coppice affects the general feel of the woodland area. In traditional broad leaf woodland, the canopy is usually quite high and the understorey more sparse than in a coppice woodland. Here, especially now that the leaves are out, there is much more vegetation at eye level than you would usually find in non-coppiced woodlands.

Looking up through the coppice canopy

Looking up through the coppice canopy

We have said before that the structure of this woodland is “coppice with standards”. This means that there is a coppice understorey with scattered larger standard trees. These standards need to be sufficiently spaced apart to avoid shading the coppice.

The standards in this woodland are primarily oak and horse chestnut, however in some areas these trees have been allowed to grow too large and too close together and the coppice understorey has disappeared, out competed and overshadowed by the larger standards.

Hopefully, some of these lapsed coppice stools can be brought back into a coppice cycle in the near future.

If you would like to learn more about the fascinating history of coppicing which dates back to neolithic times, take a look at these links:

http://smallwoods.org.uk/our-work/woodland-products/a-brief-history-of-coppicing/

http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/pdf/pubs93_Coppicedwoodlands.pdf

Join us again next week for a walk in the woods.

http://www.tree-creeper.com

Woodland Watch – Week 11 – 29/05/2013

Approaching the woodland through the beautiful meadows I couldn’t help but take some photos for woodland watch! Although the surrounding meadows are very different to the woodland area, they have a large impact on the woodland environment, especially given the small size of the wooded area.

Here you can see the meadow approaching the coppice area.

Meadow approaching the coppice

Meadow approaching the coppice

Eight small meadows surround the coppice and are an excellent example of how meadows used to be before intensification made them the rarity they are today. The site has been protected as a SSSI as a high quality hay meadow.

But what does this have to do with the woodland? The answer is simple. No environment can be taken as independent of its surroundings. Habitats do not simply observe the boundaries between themselves with woodland species staying in the woodland and meadow species staying in the meadow. The ecological boundary or transition zone between the two habitats is known as the ecotone.

EcotonesGrassland species will extend as far as they can until they are out competed by the woodland species. Woodland species will extend as far as they can until they are out competed by the woodland species. Between the two habitats is an area of intense competition where species of both habitats compete for space and nutrients.

As you enter the woodland, a hedgerow and grassy stream bank comprise the ecotone between the hay meadow and the coppice woodland. Back during the winter months, these banks were sparsely vegetated at a low level. Now, the vegetation is well over a metre high.

Ecotone between the coppice woodland and the surrounding hay meadow

Ecotone between the coppice woodland and the surrounding hay meadow

The boundary comprises a mix of both woodland and meadow vegetation and at this time of year Cow Parsley (Anthriscus sylvestrisis one of the most abundant plants. Cow Parsley is a hollow-stemmed, tall plant that grows rapidly in the summer before dying back. It likes shady habitats in particular, and can be found decorating woodland edges, roadside verges and hedgerows with masses of frothy, white flowers.

A native wildflower which is often considered a weed, cow parsley is nevertheless a valuable species, providing important links in the food chain for many other animals, as well as areas for shelter and material for nesting.

On entering the woodland, the first thing I noticed was the dramatic colour change. Last week, the floor was a carpet of bluebells, in just the space of a week, the woodland floor has changed dramatically from blue to green.

The green woodland floor is a dramatic change from last week's carpet of bluebells

The green woodland floor is a dramatic change from last week’s carpet of bluebells

While some of these beautiful spring flowers still remain, we will have to wait for next year to see their flush of spring colour again. Some estimates suggest the UK has up to half of the world’s total bluebell population and 71% of native bluebells are found in broadleaved woodland or scrub.

Emerging out the other side of the woodland back into the hay meadow SSSI, it was lovely to look back and finally see the oak trees in full leaf. With the poor weather this spring, the oaks were one of the last species to come into leaf and I’m sure you agree they look beautiful here in the sunshine.

Oak trees now in leaf on the boundary of the coppice woodland

Oak trees now in leaf on the boundary of the coppice woodland

Well, that’s all we have have time for this week’s walk in the woods. Hope you can join us next week and see what changes are happenning!

http://www.tree-creeper.com

Woodland Watch – Week 10 – 22/05/2013

Another week and yet more unpredictable weather! We’re a few weeks away from summer and finally the woods are looking like they have come completely out of hibernation! This week, there was so much going on around the small area of woodland that I decided to focus on one species in particular that has been changing and developing on a week by week basis.

Common in woodland ecotones and hedgerows, this small tree of the rose family grows quickly and sends out many side shoots and branches which make a sturdy, impenetrable barrier to livestock. Unlike Blackthorn which sends out suckers, hawthorn does not have a large root system and is therefore not greedy with the soil’s nutrients. This encourages many forms of plant life to grow in its vicinity.

The hawthorn trees growing in the woodland are generally found around the borders of the wood within the woodland-meadow ecotone. Last week, the leaves were fully out and enjoying the late spring sunshine.

Young hawthorn leaves in woodland understorey

Young hawthorn leaves in woodland under storey

This week, there is a new development on the larger hawthorn trees in the hedgerows surrounding the woodland. Between May and June, the hermaphrodite flowers are produced in groups of 5-25 together. These can be seen developing now on the trees bordering the woodland. Like everything else this year, they are a little late developing!

Developing hawthorn flowers

Developing hawthorn flowers

Hawthorn blossoms along with its newly opened leaves and in a few weeks the flowers will have five snow white petals set around slender stamens with bright pink heads. Hawthorn blossoms contain both male and female reproductive parts and are fertilized by insects moving between them.

In the summer, the seeds will grow into small green berries which will turn red by autumn. We will watch the hawthorn trees in the wood over the coming months and see how they develop and change over time.

Join us next week for a walk in the woods as we approach the summer seasons.

Woodland Watch – Week 9 – 15/05/2013

Welcome to another week in the woods. I’m sure I don’t need to tell anyone that the weather so far this spring is very unpredictable! So far I have been very lucky with my weekly woodland walks and have managed to do all of them in dry weather, but I think that probably has more to do with careful timing than anything else!

The woodland is made up mainly of hazel coppice with a range of standards dotted throughout but mainly around the edges of the woodland area. It was lovely to see the oaks starting to come into leaf. In folklaw the saying goes “If the oak before the ash, then we’ll only have a splash, if the ash before the oak, then we’ll surely have a soak.” This year however, the ash and oak have both held on for a long time before bursting into leaf and when they have they have appeared around the same time. I will leave you to draw your own conclusions as to what this could herald for the coming summer!

Oak standards on the woodland edge

Oak standards on the woodland edge

After a slow start the oak standards around the woodland are now starting to come into leaf. The oak tree has a wide range of qualities suitable for healing purposes. If ground into fine powder, oak bark can be taken like snuff to stop nosebleeds. It can also be sprinkled onto sheets to alleviate the discomfort of bedsores. Young oak leaf-buds were prepared in distilled water and taken inwardly to assuage inflammations and bruised oak leaves are used outwardly, being applied to wounds and hemorrhoids to ease inflammations.

Another plant with a great range of uses including medicinal is the common nettle (Urtica dioica). Seen emerging and starting to take hold in previous weeks, the banks of the stream bordering the woodland are now overrun with thick, impenetrable stinging nettles which are now out-competing most other flora in the area.

Stinging nettles overrunning the borders of the woodland

Stinging nettles overrunning the borders of the woodland

Around the woodland floor, the male ferns which were seen emerging with curled fronds in previous weeks are now fully unfurled and growing quickly.

Young ferns now unfurled and growing rapidly

Young ferns now unfurled and growing rapidly

Among the many weed species taking hold all over the woodland floor are the dandelions. Much less prevalent than in the surrounding open meadows and field, but nonetheless still present.

Young dandelion leaves nestled among the other ground flora

Young dandelion leaves nestled among the other ground flora

The word Dandelion comes from the French name for the plant dents de lion meaning teeth of the lion and refers to the jagged edges of the leaf of the plant. The other French name for this plant is pis-en-lit, in English this means wet the bed. Dandelions deserve this name because their greens, when eaten, remove water from the body. So eating the greens could cause someone to well… you can guess the rest. Not recommend for a bedtime snack.

The Dandelion provides an important food source to bees. The pollen from this plant helps bees out in the spring because it flowers early and the flowers continue through to the fall providing constant food. In fact no less then 93 different kinds of insects use Dandelion pollen as food. The Dandelion seeds are also important food to many small birds.

Join us next week for a wander through the woods with Woodland Watch Week 10

Woodland Watch – Week 8 – 08/05/2013

Welcome to Woodland Watch week 8. The first thing I noticed on this walk through the woods is the bluebells. The first bluebells emerged several weeks ago now, but today the woodland floor is absolutely carpeted in them and I couldn’t resist taking a photograph of this beautiful, blue, floral carpet.

Bluebells carpeting the woodland floor

Bluebells carpeting the woodland floor

Above ground level, other shrub and tree species are also coming into full leaf. This young hawthorn has progressed from initial bud burst a few weeks ago into its full leaf state now.

Young hawthorn tree in full leaf

Young hawthorn tree in full leaf

In a primitive form of biological warfare, Hawthorn spines can infect animals with pathogenic bacteria – the same bacteria as that which causes gas gangrene. Britain’s hedgerows contain hawthorn for many reasons, including sustenance and protection. Hawthorn was also purposefully adapted into a hedging plant when the peasants were thrown off their inherited land by landowners following the general enclosures act of 1845. Thus the ‘peasants’ tree’ was turned into an instrument of division and derision by political and money minded barons, a barrier hedgerow to keep people off the land.

Another weed emerging all over the woodland floor is sticky weed (Galium aparine), otherwise known as cleavers or the velcro plant among other common names.

Sticky weed among dock leaves

Sticky weed among dock leaves

Most people who have been out in their gardens have come across this annual weed whose seeds germinate in the cool, wet weather of late winter and then grow rapidly into swirly, sticky stems of green that stick themselves to skin, clothing, pets and anything else they come into contact with.the plant is sometimes called bed straw because one of its sweeter smelling cousins (G. verum) was used to stuff mattresses in medieval times.

Join us next week for another walk in the woodland.

Woodland Watch – Week 7 – 01/05/2013

It has been such a late year for all of the plants coming out of their dormant winter stage, but the growth is definitely well under way now. One of the new plants observed emerging from the woodland floor this week is the male fern (Dryopteris fillis-mas). Native to much of europe, asia and North America, it favours damn, shaded areas in the understorey of woodlands.

Emerging male fern

Emerging male fern

The leaves of the male fern grow to a maximum length of 150cm and are bipinnate made up of around 20-35 pinnae (individual leaves) on each side of the central rachis (main axis). The stalks of the fern are covered in orange-brown scales.Between August and November the membranous outgrowth on the under surface of the fern leaves, which protects the developing spores, starts to shrivel and the spores are released.

Of the large trees in the woodland, the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is also starting to come into leaf.

Young horse chestnut leaves

Young horse chestnut leaves

The horse chestnut has large, red-brown sticky buds which start to emerge around April time, however this year they are late emerging due to the cold weather. The sticky sap on horse chestnut buds protects them from frost damage and insects.

Horse chestnuts are currently suffering from the leaf miner moth (Cameraria ohridella) which was originally found on horse chestnut trees in London. The larvae burrows within the leaf tissue, heavily infesting the leaves resulting in browning and drying and over time, leaf death. First observed in macedonia in 1985, the horse chestnut leaf miner moth has spread through central and eastern europe, first making an appearance in Great Britain in 2002.

We will keep an eye on the horse chestnut trees in the woodland over the coming months.

As the season progresses and the weather starts to warm up the nettles on the woodland floor are really starting to take hold.

Young nettles emerging all over the woodland floor

Young nettles emerging all over the woodland floor

Stinging nettles (Urtica dioica) can grow to 1-2m tall in the summer, dying back to the ground in winter. They spread rhizomes and stolons which are bright red like the plants roots and help the plant to take hold over large areas. The underside of the leaves and the stem are covered in stinging hairs whose tips come off when touched and act as a needle, injecting chemicals into the skin. These chemicals include acetylcholine, histamine, 5-HT (serotonin), moroidin, leukotrienes and possibly formic acid. The chemical mixture causes a painful stong from which the species derives its common name.

Join us next week for another installment of Woodland Watch.

Woodland Watch – Week 6 – 24/04/2013

Welcome to the hottest day of the year so far and a perfect day for a walk in the woods! The coppice woodland looked absolutely beautiful today bathed in sunlight which streamed through the open canopy where many of the broadleaved trees have yet to come into leaf.

One of the most welcome sights was a glimpse of bluebells (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) flowering amid the wood anemones on the woodland floor. While the leaves have been carpeting the ground within the wood since week 1, this is the first sight of the beautiful bell shaped flowers from which the bluebell takes its name.

The first bluebells of spring emerging on the woodland floor

The first bluebells of spring emerging on the woodland floor

Most bluebells are found in ancient woodland where the rich habitat supports a wide range of species. In the past, bluebells have been employed for a whole host of uses. During the bronze age, bluebell glue was used to attach feathers to arrows and the Victorians used the starch from crushed bluebells to stiffen collars and sleeves. Bees can also steal nectar from bluebells by biting a hole in the bottom of the bell and reaching the nectar without pollinating the flower.

Also visible on the woodland floor is common dock (Rumex obtusifolius). Dock flowers from June to October, so at the moment it is only the spring flush of green growth that can be seen. The main flushes of emergence of dock are March-April and July-October.

Young flushes of dock emerging

Young flushes of dock emerging

 The hazel catkins which were golden and open to distribute their pollen only a few weeks ago have now fulfilled their purpose and are coming to the end of their life. In the last few weeks, the pollen grains released by the catkins have been distributed by the wind. When they land on the female flowers a fine tube carries the male nucleus to fertilise the egg and produce the hazel nuts we see in autumn.

Hazel catkins

Hazel catkins

And lets not forget the bramble. Although the thorny stems from last year are still scattered across the woodland, only now are the new fresh leaves coming out. There are over 1000 known species of bramble worldwide and they provide a wealth of food for birds and animals in autumn…Including humans who will enjoy blackberry picking here later in the year.

Young bramble leaves

Young bramble leaves

And that’s it for another week! Join us next week to see what changes are happening in the woods this spring! Send us your own pictures to office@tree-creeper.com or upload them to our Treecreeper Arborists Ltd facebook page. 

See you next week!